Male Infertility is any health issue in a man that lowers the chances of his female partner getting pregnant.
Abnormal sperm production, problems with the delivery of the sperm, overexposure to certain environmental factors, damage related to cancer and it’s treatments.
Treatments for male infertility may be based on the underlying cause of the problem, or in the case of no identified problem, evidence-based treatments that improve fertility may be recommended. Treatments include surgery to correct or repair anatomic abnormalities or damage to reproductive organs, use of medical procedures to deliver sperm to the woman, fertilization of the egg in a laboratory, and using a third party for donating sperm or eggs and/or carrying a pregnancy. Medication can treat some issues that affect male fertility, including hormone imbalances and erectile dysfunction..
Men with spinal cord injury can frequently achieve erection and have sexual intercourse, however the percentage who can successfully ejaculate is very low. This vibratory therapy is an office procedure which is painless and requires no anaesthetic or sedation.
Electro ejaculation is another technique that can be used to stimulate ejaculation in men with spinal cord injury who are not responsive to vibratory therapy.
Sperm retrieval is any way used to get sperm for fertility purposes.
Sperm retrieval is done when pregnancy is the goal but not possible without help. It is for men who have little or no sperm in the semen, or men who aren't able to ejaculate.
There are many ways to get sperm. The method used depends on why sperm aren't in the semen, what the patient wants, and the surgeon's skill.
Some of these procedures are:
Testicular Sperm Aspiration (TESA) is also sometimes called Testicular Fine Needle Aspiration (TFNA). TESA can be used to diagnose or treat azoospermia. It can also be used to collect sperm from the testicles. It's often done with a nerve block in the Urologist's office or the operating room. A thin needle punctures the skin and testis to gently pull out sperm. No other cuts are needed.
Percutaneous Epididymal Sperm Aspiration (PESA) like TESA, can be done many times at low cost and without a surgical cut and is especially suited for obstructive azoospermia. It doesn't need a high-powered microscope, so more urologists can do it. PESA is done under local or general anesthesia. The urologist sticks a needle attached to a syringe into the epididymis to gently remove fluid. Sperm may not always come out this way. Sometimes a surgical process is needed.
Microsurgical Epididymal Sperm Aspiration (MESA) MESA uses a surgical microscope to help retrieve sperm from the epididymis tubes. MESA can retrieve lots of healthy sperm that can be saved and frozen for later. This method is very safe. However, it calls for general anesthesia and a highly skilled micro-surgeon.
vasectomy reversal is a delicate microsurgical procedure. There are two surgical techniques that may be used to restore your fertility. Vasovasostomy, the more common of the two, involves reattaching the ends of the van deferens together. If, however, the doctor does not find sperm and fluid in the vas deferens during your operation, an epididymovasostomy will be performed. This technique involves the connection of the vas deferens directly to the epididymis, a long tube where sperm are stored and transported from the testis into the vas.
A varicocele is an enlarged vein (varicose vein) in the scrotum, and is the most common, surgically-correctable cause of male infertility and is present in about 40% of infertile males.Successful surgery will often increase the incidence of eventual pregnancy in the infertile couple. The surgical correction of a varicocele is called a varicocelectomy.
Semen analysis, also known as a sperm count test, analyses.. the health and viability of a man’s sperm. A semen analysis is done to measure male fertility, usually for couples trying to get pregnant or to check the success of a vasectomy procedure. Advanced semen functional tests are also performed to check the performance levels of the ejaculated semen.
DNA fragmentation test is also a semen analysis test. This is done as the semen analysis test alone cannot reliably predict whether a male is fertile or if a pregnancy will occur with infertility treatment. The doctor looks up for the results and appropriate treatment is provided.
Most types of sexual dysfunction can be corrected by treating the underlying physical or psychological problems. Other treatment strategies include medication, mechanical aids, sex therapy, behavioural treatment, psychotherapy and through education and communication.
The success of treatment for sexual dysfunction depends on the underlying cause of the problem. The outlook is good for dysfunction that is related to a condition that can be treated or reversed. Mild dysfunction that is related to stress, fear, or anxiety often can be successfully treated with counseling, education, and improved communication between partners.
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